CONCEPT OF SCHOOL MAPPING
Equalization of education opportunities is a necessary condition to promote faster progress of education. Creation of easy access condition to schools or their alternative becomes a necessary and essential step towards provision of equal opportunities for education. Since primary education targets children in the age group 6-11 and secondary education targets children in the age group 14-17, it is important to provide educational facilities closer to the places where children live.
The norms for creating schooling provision depend upon the expected household response to schooling facilities on the one hand and availability of public response to invest at that level of education on the other.
Creating access conditions becomes essential even to access the extent of household demand for education. Rational location of educational facilities to benefit a relatively large number of children from the same amount of investment therefore is a necessary steps to promote development of education. The school mapping exercise attempts to achieve this objective.
School mapping is an important planning technique to arrive at rational decisions regarding distribution of educational facilities across different geographical locations. The term “school mapping” seemingly implies that the exercise is confined to location of schools.
The major objective of school mapping exercise is to equalize educational opportunities by leveling –out the existing inequalities in the distribution of educational facilities across different localities. Schools are opened in many parts of AP based more on political compulsions than local requirement. Hence in a school mapping exercise it is natural to expect that some locations may have disproportionately larger number of schools than other locations. Locational equity can be achieved if some of the schools can be re- located.
METHODOLOGY OF SCHOOL MAPPING
As discussed above, school mapping is a norm based exercise. Specification of norms defines the scope of school mapping. These norms are taken into account to develop a methodology of school mapping. The methodology of school mapping involves the following steps.
One of the first steps in initiating a school mapping exercise is to decide on the administrative unit for school mapping. Since school mapping is an effort to find out an appropriate location for a school, it becomes essential that the geographical unit should include more than a village or Habitation. Therefore one has to choose between a district or a block as the unit for school mapping activities.
As indicated earlier, the norms specify the maximum acceptable distance a child can travel from home to school. If area is measured in terms of circle then the catchment area of a school is a circle drawn with the distance norms as its radius.
- ACCESS RATION.
- RATIO OF UP SCHOOLS/SECTIONS TO THE SECONDARY SCHOOLS/SECTIONS.
- GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO (GER)
- GENDER PARITY INDEX(GPI)
AIM OF SCHOOL MAPPING
- While the developmental objective of the workshop is to build the capacity of the Districts to undertake school mapping exercise at secondary level, the immediate objectives are as follows:
- To access the current status of school mapping exercise at secondary level in the District.
- To discuss the alternative methods of school mapping at secondary level; and
- To discuss the use of school mapping technique in planning for improving access at secondary level.
To achieve the above goals we can use two methods one is GIS and other is Distance Matrix method
- Geographical Information System:
PRIMARY SOURCE FOR SCHOOL MAPPING
- MIDDLE SCHOOL(UPS) MAPPING :
Identification of potential Upper Primary School for upgradation
- MIDDLE SCHOOL(UPS) MAPPING WITH CATCHMENT AREA
Identification of probable strength for the proposed upgradation school by defining the catchment area
- MIDDLE SCHOOL(UPS) MAPPING WITH LAND, PEOPLEPARTICIPATION, CONTRIBUTION
Possible of prioritizing the need by giving importance to land availability, possible student strength and public contribution towards school development
Identification of secondary school less habitations with Mandal as unit.
- SCHOOL MAPPING FORMAT WITH DISTANCE
Find the habitations which are not having secondary school within the radius 5 km distance from proposed upgradation school in that particular mandal.
- SCHOOL MAPPING FORMAT WITH GOOGLE EARTH
Prioritizing the need with visual clear evidence